MASTER SCIENCE INDEX
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One Kingdom of living things is called the
Kingdom Fungi. A fungus (pronounced /'f??g?s/;
pl. fungi)) is a member of a large group
of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms
such as yeasts and molds (or moulds: see
spelling differences), as well as the more
familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified
as a kingdom, Fungi (pronounced /'f?nd?a?/
or /'f??ga?/), that is separate from plants,
animals and bacteria. One major difference
is that fungal cells have cell walls that
contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of
plants, which contain cellulose. These and
other differences show that the fungi form
a single group of related organisms, named
the Eumycota (true fungi or Eumycetes), that
share a common ancestor (a monophyletic group).
This fungal group is distinct from the structurally
similar myxomycetes (slime molds) and oomycetes
(water molds). The discipline of biology
devoted to the study of fungi is known as
mycology, which is often regarded as a branch
of botany, even though genetic studies have
shown that fungi are more closely related
to animals than to plants.
Abundant worldwide, most fungi are inconspicuous because of the small size of their structures, and their cryptic lifestyles in soil, on dead matter, and as symbionts of plants, animals, or other fungi. They may become noticeable when fruiting, either as mushrooms or molds. Fungi perform an essential role in the decomposition of organic matter and have fundamental roles in nutrient cycling and exchange. They have long been used as a direct source of food, such as mushrooms and truffles, as a leavening agent for bread, and in fermentation of various food products, such as wine, beer, and soy sauce. Since the 1940s, fungi have been used for the production of antibiotics, and, more recently, various enzymes produced by fungi are used industrially and in detergents. Fungi are also used as biological pesticides to control weeds, plant diseases and insect pests. Many species produce bioactive compounds called mycotoxins, such as alkaloids and polyketides, that are toxic to animals including humans. The fruiting structures of a few species contain psychotropic compounds and are consumed recreationally or in traditional spiritual ceremonies. Fungi can break down manufactured materials and buildings, and become significant pathogens of humans and other animals. Losses of crops due to fungal diseases (e.g. rice blast disease) or food spoilage can have a large impact on human food supplies and local economies.
The fungus kingdom encompasses an enormous diversity of taxa with varied ecologies, life cycle strategies, and morphologies ranging from single-celled aquatic chytrids to large mushrooms. However, little is known of the true biodiversity of Kingdom Fungi, which has been estimated at around 1.5 million species, with about 5% of these having been formally classified. Ever since the pioneering 18th and 19th century taxonomical works of Carl Linnaeus, Christian Hendrik Persoon, and Elias Magnus Fries, fungi have been classified according to their morphology (e.g., characteristics such as spore color or microscopic features) or physiology. Advances in molecular genetics have opened the way for DNA analysis to be incorporated into taxonomy, which has sometimes challenged the historical groupings based on morphology and other traits. Phylogenetic studies published in the last decade have helped reshape the classification of Kingdom Fungi, which is divided into one subkingdom, seven phyla, and ten subphyla.