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MODERN MAMMALS


Modern Mammals consist of a number of Orders, Families, Geneses & Species.

Perhaps the gray background of this page best signifies the Mammals. Mammals are believed to have existed during the age of Dinosaurs, but as very small shrew-like creatures which probably ate insects and other small live things. Mammals very well make have been colored much like modern shrews, mice and rats, i.e. a neutral pretty much unattractive color which would not call attention to predators. After Dinosaurs became extinct at the K-T Boundary (Cretaceous-Tertiary), the boundary where the Age of Reptiles became the Age of Mammals. Mammals came into dominance, as they gradually evolved into the many species which exist today, known and unknown (new species of Mammals are discovered from time to time in remote parts of the Earth).



Taxonomy Page and Mammals Chart

This is our statement of appreciation for the information on this page
which was copied from the following website:
http://www.americazoo.com/goto/index/mammals/classification.htm


Taxonomy is the scientific method of naming every animal - but as you learn more and more about animals, you will see that taxonomy is more of an art than a science. There are pouched animals without pouches, insect eaters that eat meat, meat eaters that eat insects and plants, and on and on. So it is necessary to understand that taxonomy is primarily just a method of singling out each animal so that when biologists talk to each other they know precisely which animal they are talking about.

It should also be noted that there isn't even solid agreement on which species belong in which orders. You will notice as you read through the various pages of orders that the number of species making up an order may be separately listed as two quite different numbers. Since these numbers have come from separate sources, it seems proper to allow each number to be mentioned despite the confusion this may create. A little confusion is probably a good thing to learn to accept when it comes to classifying animals.

These taxonomical names are usually not the popular names that we are familiar with, because the biological names are always in Latin. Many newly discovered invertebrates are still being named daily - especially among the insects. Except for a new rodent or a new bat every year or so, however, virtually all the mammals have been identified and named. A species is defined as the natural grouping of animals of a common ancestry, a reasonably close physical resemblance, and which in nature interbreed and produce fertile offspring. Among mammals a species may be confined to living in a single valley or on a single mountain; and then again a species may range throughout a continent or, indeed, over virtually the entire world.

The biological name given each species is in Latin, because that was decided by scientists a long time ago when Latin was a more popular language, and it simply makes no sense to change that system now. No matter what language a biologist speaks, if he or she discovers a new animal, and therefore earns the right to name that animal, that name will be in Latin. Usually the biologist names the animal after a physical trait or habit of the animal, but there are no rules to naming. Many animals are named after the scientist, himself, or the scientist's son, daughter or a friend.

The name of a species consists of two words, almost like one's surname plus the given name. The first name denotes the genus and is capitalized, and it organizes various similar species into a larger grouping. The second name denotes the particular species, and it is not capitalized.

The relationships among various species are shown by grouping them into genera (the plural form of the word "genus"), which are grouped into a family, and related families are grouped into an order, and the orders are grouped into a class. There are 20 orders of mammals recognized today (although that number may also change), each of which will have its own page.

Subdivisions are often used to further separate and/or group the relationships of animals. And geographical variants may cause a subspecies to be named, which may be commonly known as "breeds" or "races." Below is an example of a classification from "class" all the way down to "species" of a common animal we all know. The individual Latin words will be translated as far as possible so that you will be able to see how these names organize animals from the general to the specific.

The wolf is classified as:
Class: Mammalia
Subclass: Theria
Infraclass: Eutheria
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Genus: Canis
Species: lupus

Below you will find the 20 orders of mammals as well as a list of the animals (many of which you can look up in America Zoo) that belong in each order. Each animal in the Zoo will have a link to the order page in which that animal is categorized. You can also get to the 20 order pages from the desktop using the alphabetical Index of Books. (this reference is to the website shown above--go to the Home Page for that website when you get there)



Mammal Classification Table

Mammals shown in blue have a separate page which
you may click on, to go to a page on that mammal.

ORDER FAMILY COMMON NAME
SUBCLASS PROTOTHERIA
Monotremata Tachyglossidae
Ornithorhynchidae
Echidnas
Platypus
SUBCLASS THERIA
Infraclass Metatheria
Marsupialia Didelphidae
Microbiotheriidae
Caenolestidae
Dasyuridae
Myrmecobiidae
Thylacinidae
Peramelidae
Thylacomyidae
Notoryctidae
Phalangeridae
Petauridae
Burramyidae
Macropodidae
Tarsipedidae
Vombatidae
Phascolarctidae
Opossums
Monito del monte
Rat opossums
Marsupial mice, quoll
Numbat
Thylacine
Bandicoots
Rabbit bandicoots
Marsupial moles
Possums, cuscuses
Gliders, ringtails
Pygmy possums
Kangaroos, wallabies
Honey possum
Wombats
Koala
Infraclass Eutheria
Insectivora
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Macroscelidia
Dermoptera
Chiroptera
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Scandentia
Primates
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Xenarthra
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Pholidota
Tubulidentata
Lagomorpha
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Rodentia
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Cetacea
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Carnivora
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Proboscidea
Hyracoidea
Sirenia
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Perissodactyla
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Artiodactyla
Solenodontidae
Tenrecidae
Chrysochloridae
Erinaceidae
Soricidae
Talpidae
Macroscelididae
Cynocephalidae
Pteropodidae
Rhinopomatidae
Craseonycteridae
Emballonuridae
Nycteridae
Megadermatidae
Rhinolophidae
Noctilionidae
Mormoopidae
Phyllostomidae
Natalidae
Furipteridae
Thyropteridae
Myzapodidae
Vespertilionidae
Mystacinidae
Molossjdae
Tupaiidae
Lemuridae
Cheirogaleidae
Indriidae
Daubentoniidae
Lorisidae
Tarsiidae
Cebidae
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Pongidae
Hominidae
Myrmecophagidae
Bradypodidae
Megalonychidae
Dasypodidae
Manidae
Orycteropodidae
Ochotonidae
Leporidae
Aplodontidae
Sciuridae
Geomyidae
Heteromyidae
Castoridae
Anomaluridae
Pedetidae
Muridae
Gliridae
Seleviniidae
Zapodidae
Dipodidae
Hystricidae
Erethizontidae
Caviidae
Hydrochaeridae
Dinomyidae
Agoutidae
Dasyproctidae
Chinchillidae
Capromyidae
Myocastoridae
Ctenomyidae
Octodontidae
Abrocomidae
Echimyidae
Thryonomyidae
Petromyidae
Bathyergidae
Ctenodactylidae
Iniidae
Lipotidae
Platanistidae
Pontoporiidae
Ziphiidae
Physeteridae
Monodontidae
Delphinidae
Phocoenidae
Balaenopteridae
Balaenidae
Eschrichtiidae
Canidae
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Ursidae
Procyonidae
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Ailuropodidae
Mustelidae
.
Viverridae
Herpestidae
Protelidae
Hyaenidae
Felidae
Otariidae
Odobenidae
Phocidae
Elephantidae
Procaviidae
Dugongidae
Trichechidae
Equidae
Tapiridae
Rhinocerotidae
Suidae
Tayassuidae
Hippopotamidae
Camelidae
Tragulidae
Moschidae
Cervidae
Giraffidae
Antilocapridae
Bovidae
Solenodons
Tenrecs, otter shrews
Golden moles
Hedgehogs, moonrats
Shrews
Moles, desmans
Elephant shrews
Flying lemurs
Fruit bats, flying foxes
Mouse-tailed bats
Hog-nosed, or bumblebee, bat
Sheath-tailed bats
Slit-faced bats
False vampire bats
Horseshoe bats
Bulldog bats, fisherman bats
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New World leaf-nosed bats
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Common bats
Short-tailed bat
Free-tailed bats
Tree shrews
Lemurs
Mouse lemurs
Indri, woolly lemur
Aye-aye
Lorises, bushbabies, galagos
Tarsiers
New World monkeys,
marmosets, tamarins
Gibbons
Apes
Man
Anteaters
Three-toed sloths
Two-toed sloths
Armadillos
Pangolins
Aardvark
Pikas
Hares, rabbits
Mountain beaver
Squirrels, marmots, chipmunks
Pocket gophers
Pocket mice, kangaroo rats
Beaver
Scaly-tailed squirrels
Springhare
Rats and mice
Dormice
Desert dormouse
Jumping mice
Jerboas
Old World porcupines
New World porcupines
Guinea pigs, maras
Capybara
Pacarana
Pacas
Agoutis
Chinchillas, viscachas
Hutias
Nutria or coypu
Tuco-tucos
Octodonts, degus
Chinchilla rats
Spiny rats
Cane rats
African rock rat
Mole rats
Gundis
Amazon porpoise
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Beaked whales
Sperm whales
Beluga whale, narwhal
Marine dolphins, killer whales
Porpoises
Rorquals
Right whales
Gray whale
Dogs, foxes, wolves,
jackals, coyote
Bears
Raccoons, coatis, kinkajou,
lesser panda
Giant panda
Weasels, skunks, badgers,
otters
Civets, genets
Mongooses
Aardwolf
Hyenas
Cats
Eared seals, sea lions
Walrus
Earless seals
Elephants
Hyraxes
Dugong
Manatees
Horses, asses, zebras
Tapirs
Rhinoceroses
Pigs, babirusa
Peccaries
Hippopotamuses
Camels, llama, vicunas
Chevrotains
Musk deer
Deer, elk, moose
Giraffe, okapi
Pronghorn
Cattle, antelope, sheep,
goats